Titration using eriochrome black t as indicator determines total hardness due. Filtrating the water samples after analyzing the water hardness, the ph, and the conductivity of the samples, each sample was filtrated. Originally developed as an intuitive, qualitative concept, it is today firmly based on and justifed by quantum chemistry. Temporary hardness is due to the bicarbonate ion, hco 3, being present in the water. Water consists of low concentration of calcium and magnesium salts. Engineering chemistry 1characteristics and hardness of. These hard water cations include calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and the other polyvalent metal ions. This demonstration can be used to emphasize both the relevance of the relative values of formation constants in the complexation of metal cations and the applicability of complexometric titrations in quantitative chemical analysis. The simple definition of water hardness is the amount of dissolved calcium and magnesium. In scientific terms, water hardness is generally the amount of dissolved calcium and magnesium in water. In fact, hard water is found in more than 85 percent of the united states. Soap solution is used to measure the hardness of rain water, temporarily hard water and sea water.
If total hardness is high, dilute or replace the pool water. A water supply with a hardness of 100 ppm contains the equivalent of 100 g of caco3 in 1 million g of water or 0. Bch101 engineering chemistry i unit i water technology introduction water is the natures most wonderful, abundant and useful compound. The calcium in the water will be measured by performing a titration with edta.
It is therefore unlikely that bakers using municipal water need to be concerned about extremely acidic water. Other methods for measuring turbidity are jackson turbidity units jtu depth candle can be seen nephlometer turbidity units ntulight scattering from a. The most important chemical characteristics of water are its acidity, alkalinity, hardness and corrosiveness. The first draft of hardness in drinkingwater, background document for development. Where, m 4 permanent hardness of sample water v 4 volume of sample hard water in conical flask note. Lab5 determination of hardness of water slideshare. However, in current practice, the total hardness is defined as the sum of the concentrations of calcium and magnesium. Hardness in drinking water 2 estimated daily intakes of magnesium from water of about 2.
Determination of the hardness of water water hardness. Pdf determining the hardness of various water samples. A 35,000 foot view of a sound water treatment program highlights from last months chemical dosing webinar quick overview of hot water systems the key water treatment problems facing steam supply systems attacking the problems the problems with the condensate piping and its remedies hot water system treatment. In addition, most municipal water is treated to reduce excessive acidity, since this could be corrosive for the water lines.
The water which gives more lather with soap is called. While these water problems can be frustrating, water hardness is not a safety issue. Hardness in drinkingwater 2 estimated daily intakes of magnesium from water of about 2. Hardness is caused by compounds of calcium and magnesium, and by a variety of other metals. Jordan university of science and technology faculty of engineering civil engineering department ce 453 environmental lab determination of hardness of water experiment 5 student name. Water systems using groundwater as a source are concerned with water hardness, since as water moves through soil and rock it dissolves small amounts of naturallyoccurring minerals and carries them into the groundwater supply. Hardness of water is because of the presence of salts of calcium and magnesium. Jun, 2017 alkalinity and hardness are found in natural water in different degrees. The main difference between alkalinity and hardness is that alkalinity measures the total amount of bases present in water whereas hardness measures the total amount concentration of divalent salts. There are two types of water hardness, temporary and permanent. But in laymans terms, you may notice water hardness when your hands still feel slimy after washing with soap and water, or when your drinking glasses at home become less than crystal clear.
Water is a great solvent for calcium and magnesium, so if the minerals are present in the soil around a watersupply well, hard water may be delivered to homes. Know the different types of hardness in water and the process to remove temporary and permanent hardness. Determination of hardness of water by edta titration method. The hardness of water is due to the presence of soluble bicarbonates, chlorides, and sulfates of calcium and magnesium. What is water hardness and various types of water hardness. Chemistry 201 laboratory fall 2008 page 1 of 3 experiment 1. In this experiment you will measure calcium carbonate caco3 in ppm. General guidelines for classification of waters are. Water hardness that is caused by calcium bicarbonate is known as temporary, because boiling converts the bicarbonate to the insoluble. Hard water occurs when excess minerals in the water create certain nuisance problems. Hard water estimation of hardness by edta method potable water sterilization and disinfection boiler feed water boiler troubles printing and foaming, scale formation, corrosion. Chemical equilibrium principles of acidsbases, dissolutionprecipitation, oxidationreduction, and complexation applied to understanding the chemistry of surface waters, groundwaters, and water and wastewater treatment. Alkalinity and hardness are found in natural water in different degrees.
The hardness of water is referred to by three types of measurements. Jul 19, 2019 hi, i am mohan dangi welcome to our youtube channel digitech education about video. Hardness of water temporary and permanent hardness in water. Hardness in water is the most common water quality problem reported by u. Hardness of water types of hardness engineering chemistry. Briefly, explain why the ph of deionized water is typically found to be around 6. Determination of the chemical nature and concentrations of the dissolved substances is difficult for.
Hardness of water can be removed by adding sodium carbonate to hard water. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by crossref and updated daily. Hardness is defined as calcium and magnesium ion content. Determination of water hardness from common water sources using flame atomic absorbance spectrometry jarryd campbell and dan peterson department of chemistry, concordia college, 901 8th st s, moorhead, mn 56562 abstract water hardness is determined by the total concentration of. Water hardness lab report pennsylvania state university. Stepwise inquiry into hard water in a high school chemistry. Chemical impurities can be either natural, man made industrial or be deployed in raw water sources by enemy forces. The two basic methods of softening public water supplies are chemical.
Some people shy away from trying to understand his subject because they feel its over their heads. If low, add calcium chloride 77% according to table 5. We have provided chemistry 1st year study materials and lecture notes for cse, ece, eee, it, mech, civil, ane, ae, pce and all other branches. Of the many essential elements for the existence of human beings, animals and plants, water is rated to be of greatest importance. Water chemistry is basic but, nonetheless, its still chemistry. Hard water, water that contains salts of calcium and magnesium principally as bicarbonates, chlorides, and sulfates. Those are parameters used to determine the water quality. In this experiment, you will analyze a sample of water to measure the amount of calcium or the water hardness by performing titrations on water samples you provide from home or other sources.
Removal of hardness from water samples by a carbonation. Engineering chemistry 1characteristics and hardness of water water treatment. How can you refresh your water softener, using a material obtained from the grocery store. Where, m 3 total hardness of sample water v 1 volume of sample hard water in conical flask 3. Permanent hardness in water is caused by soluble sulphates and chlorides of calcium and magnesium caso 4, mgso 4, cacl 2 and mgcl 2. Typically, the water produced by fairfax water is considered moderately hard to hard. Many industrial and domestic water users are concerned about the hardness of their water. Hardness in drinkingwater world health organization. Determination of the hardness of water water hardness designation. Engineering chemistry 1st year notes pdf download books. Reasons for hardness units of hardness determination of hardness and alkalinity water for steam generation boiler troubles priming and foaming, scale formation. These are not signs of poor housekeeping, but are rather signs of hard water from the municipal water supply. Nov 10, 2015 lab5 determination of hardness of water 1.
Many fish can only thrive in certain levels of water hardness, and if the levels are outside acceptable parameters, it can cause stress and death. One of the factors that establishes the quality of a water supply is its degree of hardness. General chemistry relationships in water treatment. Water which does not give lather with soap is hard water. This is a student practical, where a lot of the preparation work has been done beforehand. Check out engineering chemistry 1st year notes pdf free download. Engineering chemistry 1characteristics and hardness of water. Hardness of water is determined by concentration of multivalent cations present in water. Multiply m 3 and m 4 with 10 5 to covert hardness into parts per million ppm.
Unit i water technology explore the world of chemistry. These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. Article views are the countercompliant sum of full text article downloads since november 2008 both pdf and html across all institutions and individuals. Water is our lifeline, played a key role not only in the history of countries, but in religion, mythology and art. This type of hardness cannot be removed by boiling the water. Hardness of water hardness of water defined as which prevent the lathering of soap. In this experiment, the hardness of an unknown water sample will be determined. Treating hardness in drinking water if you have white buildup on the end of your faucets or scale forming on shower walls or doors as water evaporates, you probably have hard water. Chemistry of sea water if suspended solid material of either organic or inorganic origin is excluded, sea water may be consideredas an aqueous solution containing a variety of dissolved solids and gases. In the ro field, brackish water can be defined as feed water with low to medium tds levels up to 10,000 to 15,000 ppm that can be treated with a brackish ro element designed for 600 psi maximum applied feed pressure.
Parts per million ppm is the parts of calcium carbonate equivalent hardness per 106 parts of water i. Difference between alkalinity and hardness compare the. Hard water does not produce lather with soap readily. Hard water contains high mineral content that is formed as water travels through rock. There are no known adverse health effects of consuming relatively hard or soft.
Hi, i am mohan dangi welcome to our youtube channel digitech education about video. Testing the hardness of water resource rsc education. Oct 17, 2016 hard water,soft water, hardness of water,types of hardness, engineering chemistry 1st year suggested books for chemistry engineering c. Note water may contain minerals and yet not be considered hard, by this definition. Limescale crust in a kettle after repeated boiling of hard water henna wikimedia hard and soft water the chemistry is water that contains dissolved minerals the materials that. Hard water is formed when water percolates through deposits of limestone, chalk or gypsum which are largely made up of calcium and magnesium carbonates, bicarbonates and sulfates. The hardness of the given water sample has been found to. This type of hardness can be removed by boiling the water to expel the co 2, as indicated by the following equation. Water hardness is based on majorion chemistry concentrations. In this article, we are going to talk about the determination of hardness of water by edta titration method. The competition of complexing agents for the same metal ion and the formation of colored metalion complexes is demonstrated with the use of an overhead projector.
Chemical hardness is one of the highly useful concepts which enable chemists to understand reactivities without reference to large supercomputers and databases. These ions do not pose any health threat, but they can engage in reactions that leave insoluble mineral deposits. Determination of temporary hardness temporary hardness total hardness permanent hardness result. The presence of salt of calcium or magnesiun in water which forms al seu with. Hard water requires more soap and synthetic detergents for home laundry and washing, and contributes to scaling in boilers and industrial equipment. Determination of the hardness of water one of the factors that establishes the quality of a water supply is its degree of hardness. Hardness of water by edta titration introduction water hardness is a measure of the amount of hard water cations in water. This is because boiling does not decompose the chlorides of calcium or magnesium. Hard water is water that has high mineral content in contrast with soft water.
Water containing less dissolved minerals is known as soft water. Hard water contains high mineral content that is formed as water travels through rock formations containing calcium and magnesium. The causes of hardness of water is by multivalent metallic cations, which react with soap to form precipitates and with certain anions present in water to form scale the primary cations causing hardness are calcium, magnesium, strontium, ferrous ion, and manganous ions. Testing water with chemical methods to determine hardness can prove useful in preventing the previously mentioned issues of inefficiency that hard water can cause. Chemical engineering department, kwangwoon university. After the measurement, it will be necessary to calculate the amount of calcium ions present. Hardness in drinkingwater, 2003 this experiment shows a practical application of how chemistry can be used to help deal with real world issues. The end point of titration is indicated by a sharp colour change from wine red to blue. Calcium, along with magnesium, is a major component of hardness in brackish water. The effect of boiling the hard water samples is investigated lesson organisation. The concentration units used to measure the water hardness is normally parts per million ppm.
Determination of permanent hardness m 2v 2 m 4v 4 where, m 4 permanent hardness of sample water v 4 volume of sample hard water in conical flask note. Water has always been perceived as a gift from the gods. Soaps sodium or potassium salts of higher fatty acids like stearic acids c 17 h 35 coona. Rick mealy state laboratory of hygiene ph alkalinity hardness. Hardness water hardness was once considered to be a measurement of a water samples capacity to precipitate soap. Hardness of water is due to the presence of bicarbonate,chloride and sulphate of calcium and magnesium in it.1376 1094 943 1014 691 268 1365 214 540 1078 1030 685 79 1178 1063 124 413 86 265 1103 1231 649 1221 877 74 1121 186 143 348 1471 1113 1175 768 951 348 5 1355 1440 1257 1125 838 270 1204 1214 1141 534